Print as image fails before the driver is invoked, which is why you get an Adobe error and not a Xerox fault, Fonts don't exist in Print as image, neither do layers or PS data, since it never manages to convert the document to Bitmap, the driver should not affect the output until it gets to where the driver settings are applied.
If you are certain that the driver is the cause of the font substitution as well as the issue where Adobe can't make a bitmap then do a complete removal of the Xerox driver and switch back to the older Apple driver for the Phaser.
I disagree that it is a corrupted file, because you glossed over the portion where I said it has the same result when printing directly from InDesign (font substitution). Obviously, rasterizing the PDF in Photoshop and printing that resulting file resolves the issue, but it's an extra step I really shouldn't have to take to print an accurate respresentation of the final artwork. I work in a small, but extremely busy, Print Shop and we use outputs from the Phaser as proofs (sometimes) for our Xerox C75 (not for color accuracy - just for content - the C75 is our Production machine, and is sometimes running jobs and not available for proofing). The same file prints correctly to our Xante Impressia and also prints correctly to the C75. The only place it doesn't print correctly is to the Phaser, which makes me believe that Phaser isn't able to proces the font. That's why I asked if being a Mac True Type font was an issue.
So it is a corrupted PS file, not really a font problem.
Most likely you will need to recreate it, or output to a PS file and hope that Distiller can fix it.
I don't think it will work, but if you print it as a pdf (doPDF)while print as image is on, it could theoretically fix it assuming anything from the Xerox is a cause, but that is not likely.
Attach the file and I will take a look tomorrow if you want.
Any pdf can be printed using Print as Image , so you can, you just won't.
If you were in Windows you could tell the driver to Download as Softfont but Apple doesn't allow that.
So that leaves buying the font, or obtaining it somewhere, and putting it into the 7500DN , but again, that would be done via the Font Management utility, which Xerox does not make for OSX, so you would need to run it from Windows.
Whether printing direct from InDesign, or using a PDF with fonts embedded, the Phaser 7500DN is substituting certain fonts while printing. The font is a True Type font and not corrupted. I cannot print as an image from Acrobat to test. Printing from Mac Pro running Sierra 10.12 (not High Sierra) and using the latest version of the driver (4.8 b 1912).