In short, No.
Long answer, Kinda somewhat...
Depends on the program and the setting, In general, Windows and OSX work the same, Application over-rides, drivers, drivers override printer.
For instance, in Acrobat/Reader, no matter the printer, if you choose to use Choose paper source by pdf page size then the job will use that size and nothing else, the driver and printer get their settings stripped out completely. Same goes for sizing, if Acrobat sends an 8.5*11 page size document, and it is set to scale it to 25%, the driver only sees a document that is covering a quarter of the 8.5*11 sheet and is dead center, the driver can do nothing about it.
Then you have color, this one obviously will over-ride because if you print a color job in BW in the application, the driver never gets the color information and can only print BW, but you still may get billed as printing in color, because the printer will (If set to color) use all 4 colors to make black (Dependant on model and brand, it can be termed as "Rich Black" vs "Pure Black", or "Black" vs "Composite black", Enhanced grayscale etc etc.
Some things can be shared between driver and app though, so changes made in the app effect what is in the driver and vice versa, but it depends on the standards used by the printer manufacturer and the application developer. For color, by default the ability in the driver is off, but you can turn it on here
The latest version of MS Office doesn't work very well with Xerox drivers, Acrobat/Reader tends to work very well, Indesign works about as well as Publisher (Not good at all) which is why both MS and Adobe have agreed for years that any job intended for professional print should not be printed from those applications, the job should be exported as PDF/x and printed from Acrobat/Reader or submitted direct. Neither remembers to tell Acrobat/reader to actually let the printer determine color first though, because the app outputs RGB to CMYK, and because of that, Blue will be purple, red will be magenta, everything is too dark and people look sunburned unless you change that first.
But remember, PDF/x is perfect for print, and transparent to users, so always use PDF/x, and if you don't know what your printer is most compatible with, choose PDF/x3 as everyone can interpret that, and it perfectly handles the big faults in print jobs.
It embeds fonts (Stops Gibberish prints and font substitution)
eliminates transparency (Printers see transparency, and often try to print the invisible , which ends up making a shadow)
embeds color profiles (Pantone prints correct)
My coworkers have found that when they print on our XEROX WorkCentre 7845 the setting on the Xerox's printer properties overrides whatever program they are printing from. Is there a way to allow the printer to take the settings from the program the user is printing from rather than having to change default setting on the printer property every time?